When you run a an application under docker, you have a few different mechanisms you can choose from to provide networking connectivity.
This article digs into some of the details of two of the most common mechanisms, while trying to estimate the cost of each.
The most common way to provide network connectivity to a docker
container is to use the
-p parameter to
docker run. For
example, by running:
docker run --rm -d -p 10000:10000 envoyproxy/envoy
you have exposed port 10000 of an
on port 10000 of your host machine.
Let's see how this works. As root, from your host, run:
and look for port 10000. You'll probably see something like:
[...] tcp6 0 0 :::10000 :::* LISTEN 31541/docker-proxy [...]
this means that port 10000 is open by a process called docker-proxy, not envoy.
Like the name implies,
docker-proxy is a networking proxy
similar to many others: an userspace application that listens on
a port, forwarding bytes and connections back and forth as necessary.
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I recently had to increase the size of an encrypted partition on my
Debian server. I have been a long time user of
and tried similar processes in the early days of the technology.
I was really impressed by how easy it was today, and how it all just worked without effort without having to reboot the system, mark the filesystems read only, or unmount them.
Here are the steps I used, on a live system:
mount to determine the name of the cleartext
partition to resize. In my case, I wanted to add more space
/opt/media, so I run:
# mount |grep /opt/media /dev/mapper/cleartext-media on /opt/media type ext4 (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,noatime,nodiratime,discard,errors=remount-ro,data=ordered)
which means that
/opt/media is backed by
cryptsetup to determine the name of the encrypted
Logical Volume backing the encrypted partition:
# cryptsetup status /dev/mapper/cleartext-media /dev/mapper/cleartext-media is active and is in use. type: LUKS1 cipher: [...] keysize: [...] device: /dev/mapper/system-encrypted--media offset: 4096 sectors size: [...] sectors mode: read/write flags:
From this output, you can tell that
is the cleartext version of the
system is the name of the Volume Group while
is the name of the Logical Volume.
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When talking about using Debian, one of the first objections people will raise is the fact that it only has "old packages", it is not updated often enough.
This is generally not true. Or well, "true" if you stick to the "stable" release of Debian, which might not be the right version for you.
Also, people don't often realize that it's easy to use more than one "release"
on a given system. For example, you can configure
apt-get to install "stable"
packages by defautl, but allow you to do a manual override to install from "testing"
or "unstable", or vice-versa.
Before starting, it's worth noting that this might not be for the faint of hearts: mixing and matching debian releases is generally risky and discouraged. Why is this a problem? Well, it all has to do with dependencies, backward compatibility and the fact that they may not always be correctly tracked.
For example: let's say you install a cool new gnome application from unstable. This
cool and new application depends on the latest icons, which apt also correctly installs.
Now, in the new icons package, some old icons have been removed. Old applications using
them will either need to be upgraded, or their icons break. This is generally handled
apt-get dependencies, assuming the maintainer did a really good job
tracking versions. But this is hard to do, and error prone at times.
Worst can happen with C libraries or different GCC versions using different ABIs, or
systemic changes like the introduction of systemd or similar.
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Recently, I tried to run a Java application on my Debian workstation that needed to establish SSL / HTTPs connections.
But... as soon as a connection was attempted, the application failed with an ugly stack trace:
ValidatorException: No trusted certificate found sun.security.validator.ValidatorException: No trusted certificate found at net.filebot.web.WebRequest.fetch(WebRequest.java:123) at net.filebot.web.WebRequest.fetchIfModified(WebRequest.java:101) at net.filebot.web.CachedResource.fetchData(CachedResource.java:28) at net.filebot.web.CachedResource.fetchData(CachedResource.java:11) at net.filebot.web.AbstractCachedResource.fetch(AbstractCachedResource.java:137) at net.filebot.web.AbstractCachedResource.get(AbstractCachedResource.java:82) at net.filebot.cli.ArgumentProcessor$DefaultScriptProvider.fetchScript(ArgumentProcessor.java:210) at net.filebot.cli.ScriptShell.runScript(ScriptShell.java:82) at net.filebot.cli.ArgumentProcessor.process(ArgumentProcessor.java:116) at net.filebot.Main.main(Main.java:169) Failure (<C2><B0>_<C2><B0>)
First attempts at solving the problem were trivial: install all trusted SSL certificates on the Debian box.
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In a previous article we talked about how to use ssh keys and an ssh agent.
Unfortunately for you, we promised a follow up to talk about the security implications of using such an agent. So, here we are.
If you are the impatient kind of reader, here is a a few rules of thumb you should follow:
Never ever copy your private keys on a computer somebody else has root on. If you do, you just shared your keys with that person.
If you also use that key from that computer (why would you copy it, otherwise?), you also shared your passphrase. I generally go further and only keep my private keys on my personal laptop, and start all ssh sessions from there.
Never ever run an
ssh-agent on a computer somebody else has root on.
Just as with the keys, I generally don't run ssh-agents anywhere but my laptop. And when I say "has root on", consider that you are both trusting that person to not abuse his privileges, and to do a good job at keeping the system safe, up to date, and without other visitors.
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If you work a lot on linux and use
ssh often, you quickly
realize that typing your password every time you connect to a remote
host gets annoying.
Not only that, it is not the best solution in terms of security either:
This is where key authentication comes into play: instead of using a password
to log in a remote host, you can use a pair of keys, and well,
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Down with the spinning disks! And hail the SSDs!
That's about what happened the last time I upgraded my laptop. SSDs were just so much faster, energy efficient, and quieter that I couldn't stand the thought of remaining loyal to the trustful spinning disks.
So... I just said goodbye to a few hundred dollars to welcome a Corsair Force GS on my laptop, and been happy ever after.
Or so I thought. Back to the hard reality: last week my linux kernel started spewing read errors at my face, and here is a tale of what I had to do in order to bring my SSD back to life.
It all started on a Friday morning with me running an
apt-get install randomapp on my system.
The command failed with an error similar to:
# apt-get install random-app-whatever-it-was ... (Reading database ... dpkg: error processing whatever.deb (--install): dpkg: unrecoverable fatal error, aborting: reading files list for package 'libglib2.0-data': Input/output error E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (2)
libglib.20-data had nothing to do with what I was trying to install.
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Let's say you want to make the directory
/opt/test on your desktop machine
visible to a virtual machine you are running with libvirt.
All you have to do is:
virsh edit myvmname, edit the XML of the VM to have something like:
<domains ...> ... <devices ...> <filesystem type='mount' accessmode='passthrough'> <source dir='/opt/test'/> <target dir='testlabel'/> </filesystem> </devices> </domains>
/opt/test is the path you want to share with the VM, and
is just a mnemonic of your choice.
Make sure to set
accessmode to something reasonable for your use case.
According to the libvirt documentation, you can use:
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libvirt related commands, like
a connect URI as parameter. The connect URI can be thought as specifying which set of
virtual machines you want to control with that command, which physical machine to control,
For example, I can use a command like:
virsh -c "xen+ssh://email@example.com" start web-server
to start the
web-server virtual machine on the
xen cluster running at
by connecting as
ssh to the corresponding server.
If you don't specify any connect URI to
virsh (or any other libvirt related command), by
default libvirt will try to start a VM running as your username on your local machine
(eg, qemu:///session). This unless you are running as root, in which case libvirt will try to
run the image as a system image, not tied to any specific user (eg, qemu:///system).
I generally run most of my VMs as system VMs, and systematically forget to specify which connect
URI to use to commands like
virt-install. What is more annoying is that some of
those commands take the URI as
-c while others as
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While traveling, I have been asked a few times by security agents at airports to turn on my laptop, and well, show them it did work, and looked like a real computer.
Although they never searched the content and nothing bad ever happend, every time I cross the border or go through security I am worried about what might happen, especially given recent stories of people being searched and their laptops taken away for further inspection.
The fact I use full disk encryption does not help: if I was asked to boot, my choice would be to either enter the password and login, thus disclosing most of the content of the disk, or refuse and probably have my laptop taken away for further inspection.
So.. for the first time in 10 years, I decided to keep Windows on my personal laptop. Even more, leave it as the default operating system in GRUB, and well, not show up GRUB at all during boot.
Not because I think it is safer this way, but just to create as little pretexts or excuses for anyone to further poke at my laptop, in case I need to show it or they need to inspect it.
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Just a few days ago I realized that the Raspberry PI I use to control my irrigation system was dead. Could not get to the web interface, pings would time out, could not ssh into it.
The first thing I tried was a simple reboot. The raspberry is in a black box in my backyard, maybe the hot summer days were... too hot? I have a cron job that shuts it down if the temperature goes above 70 degrees. Or maybe the shady wireless card and its driver stopped working? I have another cron job to restart it, so this seems less likely.
So.. I reboot it by phyiscally unplugging it, but still nothing happens. The red led on the board, next to the ethernet plug is on, which means it is getting power. The green led next to it flashes only once. By reading online, this led can flash to report an error, or to indicate that the memory card is being read.
There is no error corresponding to one, single, flash, so I assume it means that it tried to read the flash, and somehow failed. It is supposed to be booting now, so I would expect much more activity from the memory card.
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I've always liked text consoles more than graphical ones. This at least until some time in 2005, when I realized I was spending a large chunk of my time in front of a browser, and elinks, lynx, links and friends did not seem that attractive anymore.
Nonetheless, I've kept things simple: at first I started
X manually, with
startx, on a need by need basis. I used
ion (yes! ion) for a while, until it stopped working during some upgrade. Than I decided it was time to boot in a graphical interface, and started using slim. Despite some quirks, I've been happy since.
In terms of window managers, I really don't like personalizing or tweaking my graphical environment. I see it as a simple tool that should be zero overhead, require no maintenance, and not get in the way of what I want to do with a computer. I don't want to learn which buttons to click on, how to do transparency, which icons mean what, or where the settings I am looking for were moved to in the latest version.
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If you like hacking and have a few machines you use for development, chances are your system has become at least once in your lifetime a giant meatball of services running for who knows what reason, and your PATH is clogged with half finished scripts and tools you don't even remember what they are for.
If this never happened to you, don't worry: it will happen, one day or another.
My first approach at sorting this mess out were chroots. The idea was simple: always develop on my laptop, but create a self contained environment for each project. In each such environment, install all the needed tools, libraries, services, anything that was needed for my crazy experiments.
This was fun for a while and worked quite well: I became good friend with with
mount --rbind and sometimes even
pivot_root, and I was happy.
Until, well, I run into the limitations of chroots: can't really simulate networking, can't run two processes on port 80, can't run different kernels (or OSes), and don't really help if you need to work on something boot related or that has to do with userspace and kernel interactions.
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Just a few days ago I finally got a new server to replace a good old friend of mine which has been keeping my data safe since 2005. I was literally dying to get it up and running and move my data over when I realized it had been 8 years since I last setup dmcrypt on a server I only had ssh access to, and had no idea of what best current practices are.
So, let me start first by describing the environment. Like my previous server, this new machine is setup in a datacenter somewhere in Europe. I don't have any physical access to this machine, I can only ssh into it. I don't have a serial port I can connect to over the network, I don't have IPMI, nor something like intel kvm, but I really want to keep my data encrypted.
Having a laptop or desktop with your whole disk encrypted is pretty straightforward with modern linux systems. Your distro will boot up, kernel will be started, your scripts in the initrd will detect the encrypted partition, stop the boot process, ask you for a passphrase, decrypt your disk, and happily continue with the boot process.
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While trying to get ldap torture back in shape, I had to learn again how to get
slapd up and running with a reasonable configs. Here's a few things I had long forgotten and I have learned this morning:
slapd.confis relevant. Don't be naive, even though the config looks like a normal key value store, some keys can be repeated multiple times (like backend, or database), and can only appear before / after other statements.
slapd. Some of it is because the setup is just different, some of it because I probably had a few errors to being with, some of it is because a few statements moved around or are no longer valid. See the changes I had to make.
Recent versions of
slapd support having configs in the database itself, or at least represented in ldiff format and within the tree. Many distros ship
slapd with the new format. To convert from the old format to the new one, you can use:
slapd -f slapd.conf -F /etc/ldap/slapd.d
I had long forgotten how quiet
slapd can be, even when things go wrong. Looking in
/var/log/syslog might often not be enough. In facts, my database was invalid, configs had error, and there was very little indication of the fact that when I started slapd, it was sitting there idle because it couldn't really start. To debug errors, I ended up running it with:
slapd -d Any -f slapd.conf
slapd will not create the initial database by itself. To do so, I had to use:
/usr/sbin/slapcat -f slapd.conf < base.ldiff
base.ldiff being something like this.
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Have you ever been lost in conversations or threads about one or the other file system? which one is faster? which one is slower? is that feature stable? which file system to use for this or that payload?
I was recently surprised by seeing
ext4 as the default file system on a new linux installation. Yes, I know,
ext4 has been around for a good while, and it does offer some pretty nifty features. But when it comes to my personal laptop and my data, well, I must confess switching to something newer always sends shrives down my back.
Better performance? Are you sure it's really that important? I'm lucky enough that most of my coding & browsing can fit in RAM. And if I have to recompile the kernel, I can wait that extra minute. Is the additional slowness actually impacting your user experience? and productivity?
Larger files? Never had to store anything that
ext2 could not support. Even with a 4Gb file limit, I've only rarely had problems (no, I don't use
FAT32, but when dmcrypt/ecryptfs/encfs and friends did not exist, I used for years the good old
CFS, which turned out to have a 2Gb file size limit).
Less fragmentation? More contiguous blocks? C'mon, how often have you had to worry about the fragmentation of your
ext2 file system on your laptop?
What I generally worry about is the safety of my data. I want to be freaking sure that if I lose electric power, forget my laptop in suspend mode or my horrible wireless driver causes a kernel panic I don't lose any data. I don't want no freaking bug in the filesystem to cause any data loss or inconsistency. And of course, I want a good toolset to recover data in case the worst happens (fsck, debug.*fs, recovery tools, ...).
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Back in 2004 I was playing a lot with
OpenLDAP. Getting it to run reliably turned out more challenging than I had originally planned for:
DB_CONFIGfile in the top level directory of the database. Not a feature of openldap, rather a feature of BerkeleyDB.
HDB, both based on BerkeleyDB. The first, older, did not support operations like 'movedn', which had been standardized in the LDAP protocol for a while, and a few other features that
HDBthough, was marked as experimental. During our use, we found several bugs.
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